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Library and Knowledge Service for NHS Ambulance Services in England - Harvard System

This is an indicative standard for the Harvard Citation System. Use this standard if you have not been specifically recommended another to use. This Guide is based on the BU Guide to Citation in the Harvard Style produced by Bournemouth University.

The Harvard System (Author Date Method)

All statements, opinions, conclusions etc. taken from another writer’s work should be cited, whether the work is directly quoted, paraphrased or summarised.

In the Harvard System cited publications are referred to in the text by giving the author’s surname and the year of publication (see Section 1. Citation in the text) and are listed in a bibliography at the end of the text (see Section 2. References at the end of a piece of work).

Originators/authors: name(s) of the person or organisation shown most prominently in the source as responsible for the content in its published form should be given. For anonymous works use ‘Anon.’ instead of a name. For certain kinds of work, e.g. dictionaries or encyclopaedias, or if an item is the co-operative work of many individuals, none of whom have a dominant role the title may be used instead of an originator or author.

Dates: if an exact year or date is not known, an approximate date preceded by ‘ca.’ may be supplied and given in square brackets. If no such approximation is possible, that should be stated, e.g. [ca.1990] or [no date].